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EPOS-N - European Plate Observing System

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    EPOS-N: SVALBARD - SIX GEOPHYSICAL STATIONS    

     Project description

UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN
Department of Earth Science
 Allé gt. 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway 
             
0.1   DRAFT - request for comments - 25 May, 2018 OM OM -
VER. STATUS CHANGE DATE BY CKD APPD

Quoting from EPOS-N Project Description (Rev. 10 January 2016), p.10:

    "We propose to install six additional multi-parameter geophysical stations on Svalbard. The stations will be equipped with a broadband seismometer,
    a high precision GPS antenna and a weather station. Two of the stations will be located northeast of Kingsbay, two on Nordaustlandet and two on Edgeøya.
    The main practical challenges for these stations are accessibility, reliable power and the environmental conditions."

1 NEWS


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Earthquakes locations with magnitude greater then 2.0, from 1980 to 2011. Illustration from Dallmann (2015): "Geoscience Atlas of Svalbard".

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Sites visited on Svalbard by EPOS field team, August 2017, scouting for suitable seismometer sites.

2 INTRODUCTION


Map showing all planned EPOS-N installations. Sensor emplacement methods subject to change.

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Svalbard, areas where new EPOS stations are proposed: North-East of Kings Bay (Ny-Ålesund) - two stations; Nordaustlandet - two stations; Edgeøya - two stations. Click to enlarge. Map source.

3 SEISMOMETER


3.1 Instrument candidates



SEISMOMETER MODELS
Type Model Manufacturer Integrated digitizer Bandwidth Sensitivity Dimensions Supply voltage / power Operating temp. range Self-noise plots1) / Data sheet
NORMAL

THIS MODEL WAS SELECTED
Trillium 120 Q/QA Nanometrics No -3 dB points at 120 s and 150Hz 1200 V-s/m ±0.5% precision Dia: 210 mm (5.63”) / Weight: 7.2 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 560 mW typical at 12 V input -20°C - +50°C Click to enlarge. PDF
POST HOLE Trillium PH Nanometrics No -3 dB points at 120 s and 150Hz 1200 V-s/m ±0.5% precision Dia: 143mm (5.63”) / Weight: 16 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 560 mW typical at 15 V input - Click to enlarge. PDF
Meridian PH Nanometrics Yes -3 dB points at 120 s and 150z 480, 960, 1920, 4800, 9600, 19200 counts/(um/s), 1% accuracy Dia: 143 mm (5.64”) / Weight: 17.9 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 1.6 W (1.9 W with Ethernet -20°C - +65°C (standard) -50°C - +65°C (polar) Click to enlarge. PDF
Meridian Compact PH Nanometrics Yes -3 dB points at 120 s and 108z 300, 600, 1200, 3000 counts/(um/s), 1% accuracy Dia: 97 mm (3.8”) / Weight: 3.0 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 1.0 W (1.3 W with Ethernet -40°C - +65°C Click to enlarge. PDF
1) NLNM = the usual "New Low Noise Model", and MLNM = "PDF Mode Low Noise Model" -> more realistic. Ref. "Working with noise" by Nanometrics.

3.2 Installation methods


Borehole alternative:

Click to visit IRIS-PASSCAL site.

Click to visit IRIS-PASSCAL site, with description of insulated sensor vault.

IRIS-PASSCAL: Double wall UV resistant polyethylene shell

4 GEODETIC GNSS RECEIVER


4.1 Receiver: Trimble NetR9 Geodetic GNSS Receiver


Front view.

Rear view.
Manufacturer Trimble
Model NetR9
Receiver options Ti-1 (used by geodetic GNSS division at Norw. Mapping Authority)
User Manual PDF (2.2 MByte)
Dimensions DxWxH = 26.5 x 13.0 x 5.5 cm
Power supply
  • Supply voltage: 9.5V DC to 28V DC (unit is furnished with over-voltage protection).
  • DC voltage must be limited to 28V DC +0% (ref warning on p. 22 of user Manual).
  • Power consumption:
    • 3.8W nominal, dependent upon user settings.
    • Peak: External supply should be able to supply at least 5W (ref manual p. 22, section "External Power").
  • Power input either on Lemo 7P0S connector, or through PoE (Power over Ethernet) requiring Class 3 Ethernet power supply.
Operating temperature, humidity
  • -40°C to +65°C (note details about internal Li battery)
  • 100% condensing

4.1.1 Antenna

Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge.

Image source: Norwegian Mapping Authority.

Manufacturer Trimble
Model GNSS-Ti Choke w/SCIS Dome, ref "GNSS-Ti Choke Ring"
Brochure PDF
Operating temperature –55 ˚C to +85 ˚C
External radome Trimble P/N: 59314 available/recommended
Dimensions 38 cm diameter x 14 cm height
Mounting thread 5/8"–11 Female

4.1.2 Antenna cover

Bilde: Kartverket.

Click to enlarge.

Bilde: Kartverket.

Sales information John McRaney SCEC/ University of Southern California
Background SCIGN - The Southern California Integrated GPS Network (now disbanded)
References

4.1.3 Antenna mast structure


  • Mast delievered by Brødrene Berntsen AS:
    • "Calendermast": Triangular shape, each section 3 meter long weighing 32 kg, 30x30 cm footprint. Pyramid shaped top section is also available.
    • Model "ST-B", 6 meter high, has also been used.
    • Brochure, mast product range (PDF), Brødrene Berntsen AS.
  • Other parts can be made by "Ito Produksjon" near Hønefoss. other mechanical workshops can also manufacture such parts.
Click to enlarge.

"Calendermast" supplied by Br. Berntsen. In addition, there are parts that permit installation of other antennas. Image source: Norw. Mapping Authority.

4.1.4 Coax cable between GNSS-antenna and receiver


Information from Trimble NetR9 User Manual, p. 28.

5 MET. STATION


Some met station candidates.

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Image source link.

Onset is a well-known brand in low power data collecting applications.

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Cambell Scientific is also renowned. The CR1000 data logger is a workhorse with a proven track record. (The CR1000 manual 2010 edition is more then 500 pages, will probably take some effort to learn all features of this product.)

They recently introduced a new logger, model CR6. Here's the Norwegian representative.


Aanderaa (now an Xylem brand) also manufactures high quality and durable instrumentation systems.

Vaisala has a strong name in the met.sensor / weather station business ...

Perhaps these can give some advise: http://www.projects.science.uu.nl/iceclimate/aws/technicals.php


6 TELEMETRY


Telemetry design specifications will of course influence power supply need. The main telemetry alternatives are, listed by rising power consumption:

  1. No telemetry - only local storage of data and extraction at yearly inspection visit.
  2. Transfer of station State-of-health (SOH) information either daily or weekly.
  3. SOH plus triggered event data files downloaded manually.
  4. SOH plus continuous seismic data all three channels

The various communication systems suitable must be compared and assessed.

6.1 Iridium


6.1.1 Modems

6.1.2 What others are doing

6.2 Long range WiFi


6.3 Telemetry links


7 POWER SYSTEMS


7.1 Wind generators


7.1.1 Vertical

Savonius type wind generator (vertical axis) which does not need directional guidance. The Windside generator is said to have a 60 m/s wind endurance and 50 year lifespan ... can be furnished with an automatic lubrication system could increase the maintenance interval to 5 years. Windside's Norwegian representative, GETEK, has extensive experience in delivering wind & solar based energy solutions to remote and exposed locations.

Windside vertical wind turbine
Windside vertical wind turbine in Norway (delivered by GETEK). Image source: Windside.

The generator mentioned above could be one of many. We need to examine the current range of vertical wind generators that are suitable under extreme climate conditions. Let's start here: http://www.allsmallwindturbines.com/


Forgen Ventus 30 vertical axis wind generator.

7.1.2 Horizontal

Superwind 350 is highly regarded for Arctic use. Made by SuperWind, a German manufacturer.

7.1.3 Other wind generator links

7.2 Solar panels


New beacon model, to be deployed by Norwegian Coastal Administration.

New solar powered beacon model, to be deployed by Norwegian Coastal Administration. Image source: Svalbardposten.

About the new solar powered beacon:

7.3 Hybrid wind / solar systems


7.3.1 The Norwegian Coastal Administration: AIS for Arctic region


The Norwegian Coastal Administration NCA (="Kystverket") has commissioned a combined solar / wind powered AIS (automatic identification system) system from Kongsberg Seatex. The prototype will be tested on Svalbard for one year.

Information:

Click to enlarge.

Map showing 14 planned AIS stations on Svalbard. Click to enlarge. Link to image source Svalbardposten.

Specifications, as provided on NCA webpage:

(:table border=1 cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0: width=1000 )

Producer Kongsberg Seatex
Model name «Greenfield»
Batteries Furnished with 20 batteries placed in two metal enclosures. Total capacity 3330 Ah, sufficient to power AIS base station and satellite telemetry equipment for six months in the absence of wind or solar power.
Solar panels Three, heading East, South, West
Wind generator Windside. It seems to be model WS-015, the smallest in the product range.
Surplus energy usage Battery heating.
Telemetry
  1. AIS receiver
  2. Forwarding AIS data either via other AIS stations, or direct to satellite.
NCA / Kongsberg-Seatex AIS for Arctic region, prototype testing. Link to NCA image source.
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7.4 Fuel cell


There are fuel cell systems available that are candidates in both a hybrid (mixed with other energy sources) power solution, or as stand-alone units.

EFOY Pro Cabinet - click to enlarge.
EFOY Pro Cabinet: A methanol based fuel cell system.
Power Controls hybrid fuel cell system. Click to enlarge.
Power Controls AS hybrid fuel cell system, based on EFOY methonol cell, example. Click to enlarge.
Ultra Electronics ROAMIO  Performer P250i Fuel cell.
Ultra Electronics ROAMIO Performer P250i fuel cell.

EFOY system fuel conversion rate: 0.9 l/kWh


EFOY fuel cartridges

7.5 Reports from other projects / links


  • PolarPower.org "... is funded by the National Science Foundation with the goal of providing a useful working resource for researchers in choosing, designing, implementing, and maintaining remote power systems in polar environments."
  • IRIS PASSCAL Polar Design
  • GLISN "Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network" has established a sensor array of 33 stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet.
  • US Array Alaska
  • UNAVCO

8 CO-LOCATION WITH EXISTING SVALBARD INSTRUMENTATION


Co-locating seismometers with existing instrumentation om remote Svalbard sites has many advantages. Some possibilities:

The AWAKE project installed many weather stations on Svalbard. Here are some very informative photos extracted from presentation given by Mr Øyvind Nordli, Norw. Met. Office, at Progress Meeting held November 4-5th, 2010 in Oslo. We might contact Ø.N. and ask for mast manufacturer details, and their experience so far with these mast designs. They look very robust, but that impression must be confirmed by some knowledgeable person.

The project has been extended, here is information about AWAKE-2 project.

INSTALLATION AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATIONS ON SVALBARD, AWAKE PROJECT

Link to image source

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Notice the hammer drill being used. It's probably a petrol
driven Atlas Copco unit, like Cobra Combi. Click to enlarge.
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9 "BIO HAZARDS" - POLAR BEAR IMPACT


Any constructions on East Svalbard and Edgeøya might be visited by polar bears. Equipment must be dimensioned to safely withstand a leaning bear, as indicated below - at least!

click to enlarge.
Automatic weather station (AWS) being installed on Karl XII øya. Image source link.
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An incredible photo that shows what we're up against. Image source link.
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Karl XII øya AWS: The party's over. Image source link.

Karl XII øya AWS: The lattice mast is still intact, so perhaps the joint between AWS enclosure and the substructure wasn't strong enough, or the AWS material (most likely Aluminum) could not withstand the bending moment force generated by the leaning bear, and ruptured? (Note: These are just speculations - we have not read any damage reports - only judging from the photos.) Image source link.

10 EXISTING INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS ON SVALBARD


Designing instrumentation for remote and exposed locations on Svalbard is a challenging task. We have to seek advise from other institutions that have experience in this area. Here is a brief overview of existing instrumentation systems installed in remote parts of Svalbard, and the institutions that operate them. In addition, if our instrumentation is co-located with that of others, transport and logistics benefits are obvious.

MET STATIONS - EXISTING

Weather stations on Svalbard, operated by Norwegian Met.Office. Click for source.
MET STATIONS - EXISTING AND PROPOSED

SIOS - Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System

Source: SIOS - gap analysis - Locations of existing and proposed new scientific infrastructure - February 2011 - Met stations.

SOLID EARTH STATIONS - EXISTING AND PROPOSED
  SIOS - Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System

  

Source: SIOS - gap analysis - Locations of existing and proposed new scientific infrastructure - February 2011 - Solid Earth stations.

10.1 Spitsbergen


10.1.1 Verlegenhuken -- Crozierpynten -- Ny-Ålesund

10.1.2 Linnedalen


Weather station Linnedalen. Image source: Bates geology department. "Meteorological data from the Main Weather station in the Linne Valley (78.02710 N, 13.85025 E, 25m elev ASL). The station is an Onset data logger H21-001 and Onset sensors (see http://www.onsetcomp.com). The station records data every 30 minutes." (quote from here.)

10.1.3 Bohemmanneset

10.1.4 Hornsund

10.2 Nordaustlandet


10.2.1 Rijpfjorden


Weather station, Rijpfjorden. (Image source link).

10.3 Edgeøya


10.3.1 Kapp Heuglin

10.4 Kvitøya


10.5 Kongsøya


10.6 Karl XII øya


11 LOGISTICS


12 SVALBARD GOVERNANCE


13 REFERENCES


RESEARCH PAPERS

14 MISC


14.1 Power systems


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Page last modified on June 10, 2018, at 03:10 PM
Electronics workshop
Department of Earth Science - University of Bergen
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