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Title

Jan Mayen: Data collection Aug/Sept 2009 - M.Sc. thesis

Project documentation

By
O.M.
Date
15 June 2009
Version
0.1

1 INTRODUCTION


We are planning data collection on Jan Mayen as part of Ove's M.Sc. thesis.

Equipment overview:

7 ea seismograph systems (one spare), each consisting of:

  • Combined sensor and digitizer unit. Data will be stored on SD/MMC memory.
  • Solar panel
  • Battery

Ove: 29 July flight to Jan Mayen, return 30 September.


2 LATEST NEWS


Battery voltages:

Some battery voltages, measured after nearly one week:

 
    1) 09 Aug: 12.94 V
    2) 09 Aug: 12.98 V
    3) 09 Aug: 12.87 V
    4) 12 Aug:  9.09 V 

The last battery was replaced by fully charged battery - site had been shrouded in fog most of the time (running for 11 days).

Station 2, 11 August 2009
Station 2, 11 August 2009 (Ove has been advised to remove tie-wraps partially covering solar panels)
Station 4, 4 August 2009
Station 4, 4 August 2009 (Ove has been advised to remove tie-wraps partially covering solar panels)
Station 5, 7 August 2009
Station 5, 7 August 2009


3 TIME SCHEDULE


Activity Date Status
Testing completed 29 June 2009 OK
Packing completed 1 July 2009 OK
Shipping 3 July 2009 OK


4 PACKING LIST


GROUP 'POS QTY UNIT SUPL P/N DESCRIPTION MFR / SUPL DOCS STATUS
1 PC Equipment
. 1.1 1 ea - Laptop incl case, AC-adapter, USB-Serial adapter, USB Memory 8 GByte - - -
2 Seismographs
. 2.1 7 ea SL07/S3 Seismograph 3-component Sara Electronic Instruments Link -
. 2.2 7 ea Mod. SM-66 GPS antenna for Seismograph Sara SL07/S3 San Jose Technology, Inc. Link -
. 2.3 7 ea - Power cable for Seismograph Sara SL07/S3 - - -
. 2.4 7 ea 31.701 Plastic box, shelter for Seismograph Sara SL07/S3, 15 L Clas Ohlson - -
. 2.5 10 ea 348705 SD Card 2 GByte, speed class 2 (= write speed 2 MByte/s) SANDISK / Komplett Link -
. 2.6 10 ea 25-532-38 Serial cable, null-modem, DB-9, 3 meter Elfa - -
. 2.7 1 ea 25-877-07 RS-232 test unit Elfa - -
. 2.8 1 ea TEST-RS232+9 RS-232 test unit Danbit - -
3 Power system
. 3.1 10 ea 149-449 Batteries, lead-acid GEL type, 12 V, 12 Ah. Mfr: YAESU Farnell Safety Data Sheet

Technical Data Sheet Misc.

-
. 3.2 2 ea Zafir-90 Charger, for lead-acid batteries above CTEK Link -
. 3.3 2 ea Mod. 738/767 Solar Panel, foldable, 18 W 12 V SolKraft - -
. 3.4 10 ea Mod. 867 SM 500-12V Solar Panel, 9 W 12 V (used in pairs, wired in parallel) Solkraft Label back side -
. 3.5 1 ea - Charging controller, MPPT type NOT USED - solar panel connected directly to battery Solkraft - -
4 Nav / Com
. 4.1 1 ea GPSMAP 76CSx GPS, handheld, Garmin (2 ea AA size batteries, 20 hr) Komplett Link -
. 4.2 10 ea - Battery, Size AA, for GPS Garmin handheld - - -
. 4.3 3 ea FT-50R VHF/UHF transceivers, with chargers NOT SUPPLIED - Use Jan Mayen base radio handset Yaesu Link -



5 HSE - HEALTH, SAFETY, ENVIRONMENT


5.1 Communication equipment

5.2 Personal protection

  • Rifle/handgun, polar bear protection: According to Jan Mayen station commander, this is not necessary - no polar bears on the island.

5.3 Contact information

Iridium telephone:
00 - 88 1651 41 9071
Jan Mayen base:
3217 7900



6 SEISMOGRAPH: SARA MOD. SL07


Sara mod. SL07 3-component Sensor / Digitizer Unit
Sara mod. SL07 3-component Sensor / Digitizer Unit

6.1 Tips & Trics

We testet these seismographs with DC power supplies rated at 3 A output current. But they seem to draw a very large input current - more than the power supply was able to provide - so they got stuck in an undetermined state. When a battery is used as power source (and these can supply very large input current) this problem disappeared.

6.2 Specifications

  • Mod: SL07/S3
  • Mfr.: Sara Electronic Instruments
  • Data sheet: SL07 Seismograph
  • Short Guide to Run SL07
  • Resolution: 24 bit
  • Channels: 3
  • Sensor: 3 ea geophones, type ...
  • Data storage:
    • SD/MMC flash card
    • Filesystem format: FAT16 '''Re-format SD cards within the SL07. Use the FORMAT command.
    • Max size: 2GByte (limit of FAT16 filesystem)
    • Speed: Class 2 (meaning sustained write speed of 2 MByte/s)
    • Mfr: SanDisk
    • Supl:
  • Supply voltage: 10 - 15 Vdc
  • Power consumption
    • From manufacturer's specification (ref. "SL07 Technical Manual" dated 22 November 2007):
      • 180 mA (max) @ 12 V
      • Power in standard mode: 1.85 W
      • Power with GPS off: 1 W
      • Averaged power: 1.5 W
      • Comments: To save power, GPS is switched off and on intermittently.
    • Measured:
      • UUT S/N: 414 (embossed on bottom plate), received May 2009 (upgrade external SD card)
      • 0.115 A @ 12.0 V -> 1.4 W
      • GPS antenna connected.

6.3 Terminal program

Connect to the top serial port (9-pin male DSUB) with a null modem cable. Terminal programs and communication parameters:

  • Terminal programs:
  • Communication parameters:
    • Speed: 115200 bits/s
    • Data: 8 bit
    • Parity: None
    • Stop bits: 1
    • Flow control: X-on/X-off
    • In Hyperterminal: File -> Properties -> Settings -> ASCII Setup -> Uncheck "Send line ends with line feeds"

      Click to see large image

If you use a modern laptop there will probably be no serial port. Instead, use USB-Serial adapter. The ones we have require a driver from Prolific; download from PL-2303 Software and Drivers web site. Check Control Panel -> System -> Hardware -> Device Manager to veryfy which COM port the USB-serial adapter was assigned to. You can also use Advanced Settings on the COM port to alter COM number assignment.

6.4 Test report

Unit no. S/N Hardware modification 1) Upgrade firmware AD/CPU2) Current @ 12 Vdc 3) GPS unit # / lock OK Terminal program Trigger operation Memory read-out Re-format SD card 4) Shutdown sequence 5) Date/Initials
1 153 OK OK/OK 135 1/OK OK - - OK OK 28/07/2009 - O.M.
2 152 OK OK/OK 135/90 2/OK OK - - OK OK 28/07/2009 - O.M.
3 151 OK OK/OK 130/85 3/OK OK - - OK ?? 28/07/2009 - O.M.
4 150 OK OK/OK 130/86 4/OK OK - - OK OK 28/07/2009 - O.M.
5 149 OK OK/OK 135/85 5/OK OK - - OK OK 28/07/2009 - O.M.
6 148 OK OK/OK 135/88 6/OK OK - - OK OK 28/07/2009 - O.M.
7 158 OK OK/OK 135/86 7/OK OK - - OK ?? 28/07/2009 - O.M.
8 - - - - - - - - - - -

1) Hardware modification:

  • Install capacitor unit in order to permit orderly shutdown sequence when power is removed.
  • Change fuse GPS board to 4 A (slow)
  • Change main fuse to 2 A (slow)

2) New firmware:

  • CPU board: SL07_0122.hex
  • AD board:
    • sadc201-201.hex
    • EEP.HEX

3) Normal operating mode/sleep mode

4) Re-format SD card: Use FORMAT command (incl. security code, which is stated from system)

5) When power is removed, upper LED should flash radiply for approx 5 seconds, then both LEDs should remain OFF.



7 POWER SYSTEM


7.1 Overview

The power system consists of:

  • Either one 12V / 18 W solar panel, or two solar panels 12 V / 9 W wired in parallel
  • Battery 12 V / 12 Ah protected by fuse 6A (auto)
  • Interconnecting wire harness

Power system (click to enlarge)

7.2 Power budget - worst case (no power from solar panels)


Battery capacity is 12 Ah. Measured seismograph current consumption:

  • "Sleep" mode: 90 mA. We have not yet confirmed that the seismograph is in this mode while recording continously (could be, as power reduction is due to the GPS being switched off).
  • Normal mode: 135 mA
Battery lifetime, "sleep" mode
12 Ah / 0.09 A = 133 hours => 5.6 days
Battery life time, normal mode
12 Ah / 0.135 A = 88 hours => 3.7 days

7.3 Power budget, normal cloud cover


Solar panels (either single, or set of two wired in parallel) delivers 18 W. This is measured at Standard Test Conditions (STS) with irradiance of 1,000 W/m2. Irradiance data from Jan Mayen (see section below) suggest an average daily energy flux of 120 W/m2 in August/September, i.e. 120/1000 = 0.12 part of standard irradiance.

So instead of 18 W from the solar panels, we will have on average 18*0.12 = 2.16 W. This means a current of 2.16W/12V = 180 mA.

So, with average cloud cover, we should have a small surplus in the power budget.

Lower temperature means the solar panels should perform even better than under STS (25 deg).

However, solar panels are connected directly to battery, which reduces efficiency as solar panel maximum power point is probably with a higher voltage then that of the battery (so-called Maximum Power Point Trackers alleviate this problem). If we assume 25% reduction of efficiency du to this mismatch, we should have 180 mA * 0.75 = 135 mA available on a daily average basis. This is just enough to feed the seismograph.



8 JAN MAYEN TEMPERATURE, SOLAR IRRADIANCE


Solar panel dimensioning should take Jan Mayen temperature and solar irradiance data for relevant time period (August and September) into account.

Lead-acid battery operation shows temperature dependency - performance is reduced in lower temperatures. Also observe that electrolyte freezing temperature is dependent on state of charge.

By creating an account at http://eklima.met.no/ it's possible to extract climate data that are of relevance.

Quoting from http://dokipy.met.no/projects/iaoos-norway/radflux.html:
The main challenge at Jan Mayen is the volcanic sand at the island and how this will affect the instruments.
So pay attention to wind driven sand covering the solar panels.

8.1 Jan Mayen daily mean temperature 1961 - 1990

Jan Mayen daily mean temperature 1961 - 1990
Jan Mayen daily mean temperature 1961 - 1990.

From figure above we use an average temperature value of 3 degrees in August and September.

8.2 Jan Mayen solar radiation

Instruments that measure solar radiation - called Pyranometers - are not used on the Jan Mayen meteorological station due to the regular dome cleaning maintenance needed to obtain reliable data. Normal data sets instead give information on cloud coverage as a result of manual observations. Albeit useful, it is solar radiation data that would be of greatest interest.

However, a Polar Year project that measures radiative flux on Jan Mayen publishes data on http://dokipy.met.no/projects/iaoos-norway/radflux.html. Radiation curves from Jan Mayen looks like this:

Jan Mayen radiation flux.
Jan Mayen radiation flux, from this web page.

Solar panels utilize the short wave (= higher energy) part of the solar spectrum. We thus disregard the long wave curve. The red curve is interpreted as daily average value. Data collection period is August and September. An average value for this period is obtained by reading the red curve on 1 May - 120 W/m2. This figure will be used in solar panel dimensioning.

Daily average solar radiation in August and September estimated to be 120 W/m2.



9 SOLAR PANELS


We have purchased these Solar Panels.

9.1 Solar Panel Type A:

  • Supl: www.solkraft.dk
  • Mod: 738/767
  • Qty: 2 ea
  • Description: Foldable
  • Capacity: 18 W
  • Dimensions:
  • Weight

9.2 Solar Panel Type B:

  • Supl: www.solkraft.dk
  • Mod: 867 SM 500-12V
  • Qty: 10 ea
  • Description:
  • Capacity: 9 W
  • Dimensions:
  • Weight

So we have to combine two Type B panels for each recording system.

10 BATTERIES


26 June 2009: We decided to purchase 10 ea YUASA 12V - 12 Ah batteries.

New batteries - candidates for evaluation. They should be of either GEL or AGM type.

Voltage / Capacity Supl Model Supl P/N Mfr Size L*W*H [mm] Weight [kg] Type Price ea/10 [NOK, ex mva]
12 V / 12 Ah ELFA LC-RA1212PG 69-109-13 Panasonic 94 x 98 x 151 3.8 AGM 514,-
12 V / 12 Ah ELFA CT12-12LX 69-104-18 Celltech 150 * 105 * 100 3.7 ?? 285,-
12 V / 10 Ah ELFA A512/10.02 69-476-26 Sonnenschein 95 x 152 x 98 4.0 1) 581,-
12 V / 12 Ah Farnell NP12-12 149-449 Yuasa 98 x 151 x 98 4.0 GEL 436,-
12 V / 12 Ah Farnell BEG120120 5085330 CAMDEN ELECTRONICS 97 x 150 x 100 4.0 GEL 360,-
12 V / 12 Ah Farnell BEV120120 1577879 CAMDEN ELECTRONICS 95 x 151 x 98 3.7 ? 329,-

1) Quoting from data sheet: Trouble-free transportation of operational blocs, no restrictions for rail, road, sea and air transportation (IATA, DGR clause A 67).

AGM - Absorbant Glass Mat

10.1 Evaluation of existing 12 V/24 Ah batteries

We currently have these batteries in stock:

Yuasa-np24-12 battery
Battery Yuasa mod. NP24-12.
Yuasa mod. NP24-12 battery discharge characteristics
Yuasa mod. NP24-12 battery discharge characteristics.

We will perform a simple test. We want to verify that the discharge characteriscs of our Yuasa mod. NP24-12 batteries follow the 0.1CA curve. Battery capacity is 24 Ah; hence, 0.1CA is 2.4 A. Ideally, we should attach a constant current load to the battery, but we do not have time to build this circuit. Instead, we use a 12V/2.4A = 5 ohm resistor, and leave it for 10 hours, monitoring battery voltage at regular intervals. After 10 hours the voltage should be around 10.5 V.

Yuasa mod. NP24-12, lifetime related to Depth-of-Discharge
Yuasa mod. NP24-12 lifetime related to Depth-of-Discharge (DOD)

10.1.1 Results of battery test

Measurement setup:

Test of Yuasa mod. NP24-12I, 12 V, 24 Ah
23 May 2009: Test of Yuasa mod. NP24-12I, 12 V, 24 Ah (download large photo).
  • Start of test: 11:12 23 May 2009
  • End of test: 20:12 23 May 2009
  • Voltage and current logged on Fluke 45 Multimeter
  • Voltage 10 sec logging interval
  • Current 2 sec logging interval

10.1.2 Files

10.1.3 Plot

Yuasa mod. NP24-12 battery discharge characteristics, measured 23 May 2009
Figure shows Yuasa mod. NP24-12 battery (12 V, 24 Ah capacity) discharge characteristics, measured 23 May 2009

CONCLUSION
After 9 hours discharging the battery with nearly 0.1CA (which is 2.4 A), terminal voltage is 11.05 V and 20 Ah has been extracted. The discharge characteristics seems to follow the figure provided by the battery manufacturer (see figure above) - where terminal voltage is 10.5 V after nearly 10 hours (0.1 CA), and 24 Ah is assumed to be discharged.

So we can conclude that battery is in fairly good shape.

10.1.4 Gnuplot commands

#GNUPLOT commands related to battery tests May/June 2009

set title "Yuasa mod. NP24-12 (12 V, 24 Ah) battery discharge characteristics\n\Discarge 
current approx. 0.1 CA (2.3 A, slowly decreasing to 2.0 A at the end)\nMeasured 23 May 
2009"

set grid

set logscale x
set xtics add ("10m" 0.1666)
set xtics add ("20m" 0.3333)
set xtics add ("40m" 0.6666)
set xrange [0.1666:12]
set xtics add ("2" 2, "3" 3, "4" 4, "5" 5, "6" 6, "7" 7, "8" 8, "9" 9)
set xlabel 'Discharge time [Hours]'

set yrange [10:13]
set ylabel 'Terminal voltage'

set y2tics 4
set y2range [0:24]
set y2tics border
set y2label 'Charge [A*Hour]'

plot 'battery-discharge-23May2009.txt' using 1:3 title 'Voltage' with lines,\
  'battery-discharge-23May2009.txt' using 1:5 title 'Charge' with lines axes x1y2 



11 EVALUATION OF NEW SOLAR PANEL TYPE


We intended to evaluate a new type of solar panel, but there does not seem to be sufficient time for that.

Anyway, here is information regarding this, as a future reference.

11.1 Solar panels

  • Supl: Power Controls AS
  • Model A)
    • Supl p/n: 1000001612
    • Description: SolarPanel GlobalSolar Alu.-Frame CIGS 12 W
    • Maximum Power: 12 W
    • Current at Operating Voltage: 0.76 A
    • Operating Voltage: 15.8 V
    • Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 23 V
    • Short Circuit Current (Isc): 0.9 A
    • Temperature dependencies:
      • Power (%/C): -0.5
      • Voltage (%/C): -0.5
    • Dimensions (length x width x thickness): 454 x 416 x 21 mm
    • Weight: 2.0 kg
  • Model B)
    • Supl p/n: 1000000099, Powershop
    • Model: SL-12
    • Description: SolarPanel GlobalSolar CIGS 12 W, foldable panel w/cables
    • Typical Power at STC1: 11 W
    • Maximum Power: 12 W
    • Dimensions, deployed: 749.3mm x 457mm x 0.762mm
    • Weight: 0.4 kg
    • NOTE 31 MAR 2015: Powershop.as discontinued, look here instead: https://nb-no.facebook.com/powershopnorge

1: STC = Standard Test Conditions: Irradiance level 1000W/m2, spectrum AM 1.5 and cell temperature 25 ºC

11.2 CIS links


CIS = Cu In Se2 / copper indium selenide - a new type of Solar Panel technology

Distributors:

Not CIS but "shade-proof":

11.3 Maximum Power Point Tracking


Some articles for future considerations:

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Page last modified on November 21, 2016, at 10:50 AM
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