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Title

   NEONOR2 - kartleggging av neotektonikk i Nordland.  

   Midlertidige (2 år) seismometermålinger.

Av
O.M.
Dato
18. mars 2015
Versjon
0.1

1 OM NEONOR2


NEONOR2 tar sikte på å kartlegge såkalt neotektonisk aktivitet i Nordland - det vil si jordskorpebevegelser som foregår i dag, eller har skjedd i den siste del av jordens historie. I denne regionen er kontinentalsokkelområdene særlig preget av landhevings- og erosjonsprosesser som skjedde i den geologiske tidsepoken kalt Pleistocen (1.810.000 – 11.500 år siden). Å forstå og kartlegge hvordan disse prosessene skjedde - og fortsatt skjer - har betydning ved konstruksjon av større byggverk, undersjøiske tunneler, rør for transport av olje eller gass, og ved leting etter petroleumsforekomster.

NEONOR2 er et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom Norges geologiske undersøkelser (NGU), Statens Kartverk, NORSAR, Universitetet i Bergen (UiB) og Oljedirektoratet. Det er en del av Forskningsrådets PETROMAKS2 program. I tillegg medvirker ti industripartnere.

I kartleggingen blir det benyttet følgende målinger:

  1. 20 seismometre (jordskjelvmålere) som utplasseres midlertidig (2 år) i et område som strekker seg fra Mo i Rana til Lødingen. Dette er passive instrumenter som kun lytter etter signaler fra jorden.
  2. GPS av landmålingstype, som kan registrere små bevegelser i jordoverflaten.
  3. Satelittmålinger av DInSAR-type. Denne metoden - en forkortelse for "Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar" - sammenlikner flere InSAR-bilder for å lage kart som f.eks. kan vise landhevingsprosesser angitt i mm/år.

Universitetet i Bergen ved Institutt for geovitenskap er ansvarlig for utplassering av ti seismometre plassert i en bue rundt Vestfjorden, fra Røst via Moskenes, Lødingen og Hamarøy, ned til Straumen nord for Fauske, som vist på kartet under.

Målerne kan plasseres i kjelleren på bolighus, næringsbygg, i kirker eller i kommunale bygg. Deler av grunnmuren bør helst ha forbindelse til fast fjell.

Installasjonen består av en liten jordskjelvsensor og noe utstyr i en kasse med målene 85x50x53cm (LxBxH). To mindre antenner - en for GPS tidsstempling av målingene, og en for GSM-overføring av data - hører med. Det hele trekker ca. 5 Watt fra 230 Volt anlegget i bygningen.

NEONOR2, utplassering seismometre, midlertidig i 2 år (klikk for stor versjon). De ti som Universitetet i Bergen er ansvarlig for markert med fiolette sirkler.
NEONOR2, utplassering seismometre, midlertidig i 2 år (klikk for stor versjon). De ti som Universitetet i Bergen er ansvarlig for markert med fiolette sirkler.
FORESLÅTT PLASSERING AV SEISMOMETRE - 10 STK SOM UNIVERSITETET I BERGEN, INSTITUTT FOR GEOVITENSKAP, ER ANSVARLIG FOR:
  • Hamarøy, (nr. 1)
  • Nordfold (nr. 2)
  • Hamsund, (nr. 5)
  • Tårnvik (nr. 6)
  • Straumen (nr. 15)
  • Gimsøy (nr. 17)
  • Digermulen (nr. 18)
  • Røst (nr. 19)
  • Moskenes (nr. 20)
  • Værøy (nr. 21)


2 SEISMOMETER A: STRECKEISEN STS-2.5 BROADBAND SENSOR


2.1 Sensor


Click to visit Kinemetrics, STS-2.5 vendor.
Click to visit Kinemetrics. the STS-2.5 vendor.
STS-2.5 datasheet
Click to see STS-2.5 datasheet.

2.2 Setup and installation tips


IRIS Passcal Streckeisen STS-2 webpage, with manuals and installations tips and checklist. Should we have something similar?

2.3 Host interface box



STS-2.5 Host interface box.
There is only one such unit available. An emergency locking procedure exists, if the host interface box is missing.

2.4 STS-2.5 Auxiliary adapter



STS-2.5 Auxiliary adapter

For use with the STS3Setup software, see below.

2.5 STS3Setup software


When the sensor is installed in a confined space it can be difficult to observe the level indicator on the side, near the bottom of the instrument. STS-2.5 is furnished with leveling motors, and these can be controlled from the ''STS3 Engineering Setup" software. NOTE: There's an idle timeout with default setting of 60 seconds; keep this in mind if the instrument is unresponsive after a while.


3 SEISMOMETER B: GÜRALP CMG-3ESPC POLAR


3.1 Sensor


Click to visit Güralp product webpage.
Click to visit Güralp product webpage.

3.2 Setup and installation tips



3.3 Breakout box



Güralp Breakout box.


4 SENSOR NORTH-SOUTH ALIGNMENT


Four methods:

  1. GPS measurements
  2. Compass
  3. If inside building, tape measure on the walls
  4. Loan of Fiber optic gyro from CTBTO/IMO


5 DIGITIZER & RECORDER: EARTH DATA EDR-210



Earth Data EDR-210 Recorder.
Click to visit EDR-210 data sheet webpage.
Click to visit EDR-210 data sheet webpage.

5.1 GPS antenna


  • Trimble P/N: 66800-50 (check that link is correct)
  • 5 meter cable
  • BNC connector
  • Data sheet (note Data sheet does not list BNC connector as an option - perhaps it's not the correct version - part number search on Trimble product page doesn't turn up any results ...)

5.2 Data storage



Data storage module for Earth Data mod EDR-2010 Recorder.
There's a cable that plugs into the MIL-connector of the storage unit and with USB at the other end, so you can read the device like any other USB memory stick.

The storage capacity is sufficient for 6 month recording ( check!).



6 GSM/ICE ROUTER


The Earth Data EDR-210 Recorder can operate in stand-alone mode, but in some cases we want to transmit data in real time through GSM- or ICE routers. In that case we use the DIGI WR-21.

6.1 RealPort - software for using the RS-232 port


6.2 Dual (diversity) antenna inputs (SMA connector)


  • Use external antenna if received signal strength is too low.

Do we need an external antenna on both (diversity) antenna inputs? If not, should it be terminated by 50 ohm? Here's the reply from Digi Tech Support:

"The secondary port is only used for receiving, not transmitting, so the only power that will be sent to it will be the stray leakage from the switch. It will therefore be of the order of milliWatts. Terminating with a 50 Ohms dummy load is not essential, but it is a nice thing to do. You can make your own choice, but very few people will terminate the line, instead they usually just leave it disconnected."


7 EQUIPMENT ENCLOSURE


7.1 Cable gland


  • Model:
  • Diameter (internally):


8 POWER SUPPLY NOTES


8.1 NEONOR2 battery & charger


8.1.1 Battery

8.1.2 Charger

8.2 UiB Vesterålen (5 stations): Charger, Nordic Power model SBC-8168


UiB/GEO has installed 5 temporary stations in Vesterålen, not directly related to Neonor2, but with a similar installation method.

Nordic Power model SBC-8168 3-stage smart lead acid battery charger

Features:

  1. Charger can be permanently attached to the battery (ref. User's Manual, p.1: "Features #4").
  2. Eventually, Float Mode is reached. In that case (User's Manual, p.4):
    "Float : PWM maintenance charging and cycle charging. In this mode the charger does not deliver current when battery voltage is above a set voltage. When battery voltage drops below the set voltage, charger will deliver small current until the battery voltage rises to about 13.5V. Then the maintenance charging cycle repeats. In the case of battery voltage drops more than 12.2V due to external load or otherwise , the charger will start a new charging cycle of Bulk, Absorption and Float."
  3. The charger returns to the last mode used, if 230 Vac is interrupted, after 2 minute delay.

8.3 Test of charging unit


  1. 09 August 2013, 12 A.M.:
    Attached charger to Yaesu NP12-12 12 Ah lead acid battery (purchased 2009, data sheet). Battery was partially discharged, and charger also indicates this fact. Simulating a load, resistors are wired in parallel; R = 32 ohm, resulting in a 12.5Volt/32ohm = 0,39 Ampere current, and representing 12.52/32 = 4.9 Watt load.
  2. 10 August 2013, 12 A.M.:
    Charger indicates that battery is fully charged. Measured 13.4 V (and slowly rising) across battery terminals, w/charger and load attached, and a bit later 12.8 V and slowly decreasing (due to the load). The charger is obviously in "Float Mode" where it keeps the battery charged by applying a charging voltage regularly.
    Disconnected 230 Vac from charger; measured 12.7V, sinking down to 12.5V.
    Re-connected 230 Vac input. The charger starts in STANDBY mode. After 2 minutes it reverts to the last mode, as expected. It starts applying charging pulses with average value 14.1V. After 25 minutes the charger still indicates that battery is only partially charged, so perhaps the battery was not fully charged after all? After approx 50 minutes the charger indicates CHARGE COMPLETED. Test will continue until tomorrow morning.
  3. 11 August 2013, 10 A.M.:
    Charger indicates that battery is fully charged. Measured 12.8 V (and slowly decreasing) across battery terminals, w/charger and load attached. Voltage sinks to 12.48 V, and then rises again, indicating that charger is supplying current.

CONCLUSION: Charger can be permanently attached to battery and load (within limits of course; we've tried with approx 5 W load of purely resistive type).

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Page last modified on November 21, 2016, at 10:46 AM
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