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Title

    STORFJORDEN-2015

    Some technical considerations

By
O.M.
Date
16 August 2015
Version
0.1

This is just a documentation skeleton, project is still in dormant state ...

1 INTRODUCTION


The M=6.2 EQ in Storfjorden near Svalbard 21 FEB 2008 raised considerable scientific interest and is the background for looking into the feasibility of placing two or three temporary seismometers on Edge- and Barents Island. This web page contains some technical considerations in this regard. More background information in SIOS Working Group 5: SOLID EARTH AND LARGE TIME-SCALE PROCESSES, Final Report, 30 September 2009.

Storfjorden map - click to enlarge.
Storfjorden map - click to enlarge. Source: Norsk Polarinstitutt.

2 SVALBARD GOVERNANCE


3 LOGISTICS



4 SEISMOMETER


4.1 Instrument



SEISMOMETER MODELS
Type Model Manufacturer Integrated digitizer Bandwidth Sensitivity Dimensions Supply voltage / power Operating temp. range Self-noise plots1) / Data sheet
NORMAL Trillium 120 Q/QA Nanometrics No -3 dB points at 120 s and 150Hz 1200 V-s/m ±0.5% precision Dia: 210 mm (5.63”) / Weight: 7.2 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 560 mW typical at 12 V input -20°C - +50°C Click to enlarge. PDF
POST HOLE Trillium PH Nanometrics No -3 dB points at 120 s and 150Hz 1200 V-s/m ±0.5% precision Dia: 143mm (5.63”) / Weight: 16 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 560 mW typical at 15 V input - Click to enlarge. PDF
Meridian PH Nanometrics Yes -3 dB points at 120 s and 150z 480, 960, 1920, 4800, 9600, 19200 counts/(um/s), 1% accuracy Dia: 143 mm (5.64”) / Weight: 17.9 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 1.6 W (1.9 W with Ethernet -20°C - +65°C (standard) -50°C - +65°C (polar) Click to enlarge. PDF
Meridian Compact PH Nanometrics Yes -3 dB points at 120 s and 108z 300, 600, 1200, 3000 counts/(um/s), 1% accuracy Dia: 97 mm (3.8”) / Weight: 3.0 Kg 9 to 36 Volts DC isolated input, 1.0 W (1.3 W with Ethernet -40°C - +65°C Click to enlarge. PDF
1) NLNM = the usual "New Low Noise Model", and MLNM = "PDF Mode Low Noise Model" -> more realistic. Ref. "Working with noise" by Nanometrics.

4.2 Installation methods


5 TELEMETRY


Telemetry design specifications will of course influence power supply need. The main telemetry alternatives are, listed by rising power consumption:

  1. No telemetry - only local storage of data and extraction at yearly inspection visit.
  2. Transfer of station State-of-health (SOH) information either daily or weekly.
  3. SOH plus triggered event data files downloaded manually.
  4. SOH plus continuous seismic data all three channels

The various communication systems suitable must also be compared and assessed.

5.1 Iridium


5.1.1 Modems

5.1.2 What others are doing

5.2 Long range WiFi


6 INSTRUMENT TOWER / MAST


A tiltable mast facilitates easy maintenance and construction.

6.1 Tower / mast manufacturers



Campbell Scientific tower mod UT10. The manual of larger tower versions UT20/30 seems to be of superb quality. Hopefully the product matches.
Lattix.net Vaisala tiltable mast

6.2 Installation


The AWAKE project installed many weather stations on Svalbard. Here are some very informative photos extracted from presentation given by Mr Øyvind Nordli, Norw. Met. Office, at Progress Meeting held November 4-5th, 2010 in Oslo. We might contact Ø.N. and ask for mast manufacturer details, and their experience so far with these mast designs. They look very robust, but that impression must be confirmed by some knowledgeable person.

The project has been extended, here is information about AWAKE-2 project.

INSTALLATION AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATIONS ON SVALBARD, AWAKE PROJECT
Link to image source
Click to enlarge.
Notice the hammer drill being used. It's probably a petrol driven Atlas Copco unit, like Cobra Combi.
Click to enlarge.
Click to enlarge.
Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge. Click to enlarge.

7 "BIO HAZARDS" - POLAR BEAR IMPACT


Any constructions on East Svalbard might be visited by polar bears. Equipment must be dimensioned to safely withstand a leaning bear, as indicated below - at least!

click to enlarge.
Automatic weather station (AWS) being installed on Karl XII øya. Image source link.
Click to enlarge.
Karl XII øya AWS: An incredible photo that shows what we're up against. Image source link.
Click to enlarge.
Karl XII øya AWS: The party's over. Image source link.

Karl XII øya AWS: The lattice mast is still intact, so perhaps the joint between AWS enclosure and the substructure wasn't strong enough, or the AWS material (most likely Aluminum) could not withstand the bending moment force generated by the leaning bear, and ruptured? (Note: These are just speculations - we have not read any damage reports - only judging from the photos.) Image source link.

8 WEATHER DATA


We might consider installing additional sensor systems.

Click to enlarge.
Image source link.

Onset is a well-known brand in low power data collecting applications.

Click to enlarge.

Cambell Scientific is also renowned. The CR1000 data logger is a workhorse with a proven track record. (The CR1000 manual 2010 edition is more then 500 pages, will probably take some effort to learn all features of this product.)

They recently introduced a new logger, model CR6. Here's the Norwegian representative.


Aanderaa (now an Xylem brand) also manufactures high quality and durable instrumentation systems.

Vaisala has a strong name in the met.sensor / weather station business ...

Perhaps these guys can give some advise: http://www.projects.science.uu.nl/iceclimate/aws/technicals.php


9 EXISTING INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS ON SVALBARD


Designing instrumentation for remote and exposed locations on Svalbard is a challenging task. We have to seek advise from other institutions that have experience in this area. Here is a brief overview of existing instrumentation systems installed in remote parts of Svalbard, and the institutions that operate them. In addition, if our instrumentation is co-located with that of others, transport and logistics benefits are obvious.


Weather stations on Svalbard, operated by Norwegian Met.Office. Click for source.
SIOS - Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System

Source: SIOS - gap analysis - Locations of existing and proposed new scientific infrastructure - February 2011 - Met stations.

SIOS - Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System
  

Source: SIOS - gap analysis - Locations of existing and proposed new scientific infrastructure - February 2011 - Solid Earth stations.

9.1 Spitsbergen


9.1.1 Verlegenhuken -- Crozierpynten -- Ny-Ålesund

9.1.2 Linnedalen


Weather station Linnedalen. Image source: Bates geology department. "Meteorological data from the Main Weather station in the Linne Valley (78.02710 N, 13.85025 E, 25m elev ASL). The station is an Onset data logger H21-001 and Onset sensors (see http://www.onsetcomp.com). The station records data every 30 minutes." (quote from here.)

9.1.3 Bohemmanneset

9.1.4 Hornsund

9.2 Nordaustlandet


9.2.1 Rijpfjorden


Weather station, Rijpfjorden. (Image source link).

9.3 Edgeøya


9.3.1 Kapp Heuglin

9.4 Hopen


9.5 Kvitøya


9.6 Kongsøya


9.7 Karl XII øya


10 LINKS


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