JAN MAYEN - SEISMOMETER SITES JNE/ULLA, JNW/LIBERG - UPGRADE 2018
NEW WIND GENERATOR
|UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN|
Department of Earth Science
Allé gt. 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway
|| DRAFT - for comments
|| 14 July, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- 1 INTRODUCTION
- 1.1 Wind turbine in use, 1999 - 2018
- 2 WIND ROSE, SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION AND SPEED
- 3 OVERVIEW
- 4 SIMULATION RESULTS
- 4.1 Wind turbine: Four WindSide model WS-0,30A, using Tromsø wind data
- 4.2 Wind turbine: Four 15 W @ 20 m/s - Verlegenhuken, Svalbard
- 4.3 Wind turbine: 100 W @ 10 m/s - Jan Mayen / JNE-Ulla / JNW-Liberg
- 4.4 Wind turbine: Existing Jan Mayen system, Aero4Gen, modified
- 4.5 Wind turbine: 15 W @ 20 m/s - Svalbard, test installation Adventdalen
- 4.6 Wind turbine: 15 W @ 20 m/s - Svalbard, test installation Adventdalen
- 4.7 Jan Mayen, JNW/LIBERG wind generator simulation, July 2019
- 5 INSTRUMENTATION POWER BUDGET
- 5.1 JNW / Liberg, updated June 2019
- 5.2 Obsolete
- 6 WIND TURBINES. MATHEMATICAL MODEL, CANDIDATES
- 6.1 Model assumptions
- 6.2 Wind turbine candidates
- 7 BATTERY MODEL
- 7.1 SOC = State of Charge, lead-acid batteries
- 7.2 Battery model: A simple linear relationship between SOC and terminal voltage
- 7.3 Lead-acid battery behavior at cold temperatures
- 7.4 Typical lead-acid battery discharge characteristics
- 7.5 Losses during charge and discharge
- 7.6 Low-temperature effects on Lead-acid batteries
- 8 ENERGY FROM SOLAR PANELS
- 8.1 Sun azimuth and elevation data
- 9 METEOROLOGICAL DATA
- 9.1 "Scraping" data from yr.no met web page, which has daily statistics for the last whole year
- 9.1.1 Pre-processing software
- 9.1.2 Jan Mayen Met data access from http://eklima.met.no
- 10 INFORMATION - LITERATURE
- 11 WIND TURBINES OF INTEREST
- 11.1 Aerogen
- 11.2 AmpAir
- 11.3 APRS World, LLC
- 11.4 Falkinn - Iceland
- 11.5 Hi-Vawt model DS-300
- 11.6 IceWind
- 11.7 Leading Edge
- 11.8 Marlec / Rutland
- 11.9 Primus AIR 40
- 11.10 Prolectric
- 11.11 Skystream
- 11.12 Superwind
- 11.13 SVIAB, Svensk vindkraft industri AB
- 11.14 Wind Kinetic
- 11.15 Windside
- 11.16 Vendors
- 12 BATTERY CHARGE CONTROLLERS
- 12.1 MPPT = Maximum Power Point Tracking
- 12.2 Models
- 12.2.1 SES Flexcharge USA
- 13 PROBLEM OF OVERSPEED / VIBRATIONS / ICING
- 13.1 Hornsund, Svalbard wind turbine, 1990: Destroyed during winter storm, at 23 m/s wind
- 13.2 Icing
- 14 JMIN / NORD-JAN, 2005-6 - WIND TURBINE EXPERIENCE
- 14.1 Test of FORGEN 500 wind turbine on Jan Mayen. April 2005
- 14.2 Which turbine was used at JMIN / Nord-Jan in 2005-6 ...?
- 14.2.1 Method #1: Ratio between height and diameter, is it different between those two models ..?
- 14.3 Method #2: Use diameter of Aluminum tube for comparison
- 14.4 Conclusion
- 15 PLAN B: FUEL CELL
- 16 PLAN C: LAYING POWER CABLE FROM EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE
- 16.1 Existing roads, tracks
- 16.2 Possible cable route
- 16.3 Cable resistance
- 16.3.1 Nexans model L2-0.9 FEQE-45D
- 16.3.2 PFSP 1kV 2x2,5/2,5
- 16.3.3 PFSP 1kV 2x4/4 TR
- 16.4 Rules regarding Jan Mayen Nature Reserve Zone
- 16.5 Jan Mayen Consol Navigation System (1970 - 1985)
- 16.6 Unused cabin, remnants of Consol system
- 16.6.1 Consol B
- 16.6.2 Consol A
- 17 MISC
- 17.1 Learn something ...
- 17.2 Links
- 17.3 VAWT problems
- 17.4 Installing Gnuplot on WIN10
- 17.5 Jan Mayen Nature Reserve Zone, 2010
I 2018 we consider upgrading two of our remote seismometer sites on Jan Mayen, designated JNE/Ulla and JNW/Liberg:
- New sensor and digitizer.
- New wind turbine & solar panels.
- New TCP/IP based telemetry system.
- Adding GNSS Geodetic satellite antenna & receiver, for monitoring very slow terrain changes.
Upgrade of existing and adding new instrumentation result in higher power consumption. We need to simulate various wind turbine and solar panel based power system before determining design details.
| JAN MAYEN ISLAND
Locations of existing Jan Mayen seismometers (2018). Click to enlarge.
Jan Mayen seen from North. Image source, Sivert Dørum, Met.institute. Click to enlarge.
| SENSOR SITE JNE/ULLA
Click to see JNE Ulla photos, August 2012
| SENSOR SITE JNW/LIBERG
Click to see JNW Liberg photos, August 2012
1.1 Wind turbine in use, 1999 - 2018
The wind turbine model in use at JNE/Ulla and JNW/Liberg (from 1999 - earlier, two sets of batteries were used for each station; discharged units being replaced by newly charged ones, at regular intervals), is AeroGen4. It is a 6-bladed turbine; three of the blades are removed, and the remaining blades are reduced to half their length, in order to increase the survival chances of turbine during winter storms ... A similar turbine still in production, under different company name (Xylem), here is link to operating instructions.
, based on information in Jan Mayen "Travel report" by J.H., dated 9 November, 1983 (assuming no loss in wind turbine regulator):
- PTS-3 Sprengnether PTS ("Portable Telemetry System"): "40 mA at +/-12 V supply", interpreted as 40 mA drawn from both + and - 12 V supply (there is a DC/DC-converter which takes 12V input from battery. So power consumption is: [2* (0.04A * 12V)] * 1.05 = 0.96 * 1.05 = 1.0 Watt
- Monitron VHF transmitter: 100 mA @ 12 V = 1.2 Watt
- Total power consumption, current system (1981 - 2018): 1.0 W + 1.2 W = 2.2 Watt
2 WIND ROSE, SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION AND SPEED
This plot is based on data from Jan Mayen Met station. There is a ridge to the west, fairly close, which will probably mean that the island will have more westerly winds. The dominating wind direction is from north, but perhaps not as dominant as plot seems to indicate.
In order to simulate a power system based on wind turbine and solar panels, the following is required:
- Instrumentation power budget
- Access to meteorological data from nearest Met station, which is adjacent to airfield, some km from Olonkin City - the base area. Met station is approx. 18 km and 20 km from sensor sites JNE/Ulla and JNW/Liberg, respectively; conditions will of course not be identical but it is the best data we have available. JNW/Liberg appear more exposed then Met station, and JNE/Ulla a bit more sheltered, but both are subject to the fury of the weather ...
- A generic wind turbine mathematical model.
- Model of lead-acid battery charge / discharge characteristics, including losses that are incurred in both cases.
4 SIMULATION RESULTS
IMPORTANT: Since energy production from wind turbines is not a linear function of wind speed, that means simply multiplying wind turbine function with, let's say, average wind speed data for an hour, or a day, will be misleading. Perhaps using wind data that is the average multiplied by some factor of gust data (which is normally also available), will yield better results. This issue needs further investigation. (One manufacturer, Windside, makes much of this rather obvious point and also here, to drive this argument home). See also this description of "Mean (average) power of the wind", by Danish Wind Industry Association. (Seems to be down at the moment, 5 Feb, 2018).
Ideally, we should have a time series of wind speed data with very high granularity - like, wind speed at 10 seconds interval, to produce accurate estimate of energy output from wind turbine. However, we are often presented with either daily or hourly average & max wind data. This is an example of how less-then-perfect input data can still be utilized.
4.1 Wind turbine: Four WindSide model WS-0,30A, using Tromsø wind data
The Bouvet Island Field Station had four wind turbines originally. Here is simulation of such a configuration, using wind data from Tromsø Met observation point, 100 m ASL. We have used both average wind speed data, and average wind speed multiplied by a factor (1.25 - a 25% increase) to put some constraints on the result.
Met data from Tromsø (Vervarslinga) målestasjon, 100 m ASL: https://www.yr.no/place/Norway/Troms/Troms%c3%b8/Troms%c3%b8_observation_site/detailed_statistics.html
The Bouvet Island field station is powered by four WindSide model WS-0,30A wind turbines, plus one Superwind 350. Image source: Getek
4.2 Wind turbine: Four 15 W @ 20 m/s - Verlegenhuken, Svalbard
Met data from https://www.yr.no/place/Norway/Svalbard/Verlegenhuken_observation_site/detailed_statistics.html
4.3 Wind turbine: 100 W @ 10 m/s - Jan Mayen / JNE-Ulla / JNW-Liberg
Earlier plots of same data set - click to enlarge:
4.4 Wind turbine: Existing Jan Mayen system, Aero4Gen, modified
On the Aero4Gen turbines on Jan Mayen, three (of six) blades have been removed, and the remaining three blades are reduced in length by 50% - the only way of ensuring they will survive the severe wind conditions. There are two turbines for each site, installed in a rotating manner at 6 months interval (the one returned to base being serviced).
Instrument load is 2.5 Watt. We wondered what our modelling software would show, when we fed met data from 2017 into it, assuming the "mutilated" Aero4Gen had 25% power output compared to normal version. Result is shown below; battery bank (3 x 110 Ah / 12V) is indeed not depleted - these systems have operated satisfactory since 1997, without loss of battery power (except when something extraordinary have happened). Due to fine sand being carried by the wind, and salty atmosphere, bearings etc are worn out faster then normal.
4.5 Wind turbine: 15 W @ 20 m/s - Svalbard, test installation Adventdalen
In order to get some experience with wind turbines we acquired a V30 Antarctic Microturbine rated at 15 W @ 20 m/s, and installed it adjacent to existing weather station in Adventdalen, Svalbard (to obtain wind date for model verification), and using instrumentation with 1.8 Watt power consumption as load, and a 65 Ah, 12 V battery as energy reservoir, using SES Flexcharge USA: Mod. NC25A-12(24, 36, 48) "Ultra High Efficiency 25 Ampere Alternative Energy Battery Charge Controller".
The test station was started 12 December, 2017. Model predicted that - given wind conditions as measured nearby - battery would be depleted around 3 January, 2018. And that is exactly what happened. This gave us confidence that model software could be trusted.
4.6 Wind turbine: 15 W @ 20 m/s - Svalbard, test installation Adventdalen
As predicted (previous section), battery should be depleted around 3 January, 2018. Battery was then recharged (manually), and system started anew Friday 5 January.
4.7 Jan Mayen, JNW/LIBERG wind generator simulation, July 2019
Simulation of JNW/Liberg wind generator, under these realistic assumptions:
5 INSTRUMENTATION POWER BUDGET
5.1 JNW / Liberg, updated June 2019
Regarding telemetry system:
- Choice of digital telemetry system not decided yet. Model used here for budgeting purposes only.
- There is a huge difference in power consumption during transmission and reception of data. Here we assume that transmit mode will be active approx 90% of the time, since a significant amount of data must be transferred over system with limited capacity.
6 WIND TURBINES. MATHEMATICAL MODEL, CANDIDATES
6.1 Model assumptions
We need a simplified mathematical model of a generic wind turbine:
- Since wind energy is related to cube of wind speed, we just use the expression:
P = a * vk
where P = power, a is a constant, v is wind velocity, and k is the exponent, close to 3, thus following the cubic relationship between wind speed and potential energy.
- For wind velocity below cut-in speed, energy output is zero.
- Above a certain wind velocity, energy output is kept constant.
- No cut-off speed is implemented (so far) - ref illustration below.
- Constant a is chosen so nominal power output of the particular wind turbine under study, matches model.
By adjusting exponent until model output matches "real-world" characteristics of DS-300 Wind Turbine fairly well, we reached exponent value of 2.85.
IMPORTANT: Since energy production from wind turbines is not a linear function of wind speed, that means simply multiplying wind turbine function with, let's say, average wind speed data for an hour, or a day, will be misleading. Perhaps using wind data that is the average multiplied by some factor of gust data (which is normally also available), will yield better results. This issue needs further investigation. (One manufacturer, Windside, makes much of this rather obvious point).
| WIND TURBINE MODEL PARAMETER (EXPONENT) IS BASED ON DS-300 CHARACTERISTICS
Mod DS-300 manufactured by HI-VAWT.
Actual power output vs wind speed graph, for VASWT model DS-300 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, which is rated 300 W @ 13.5 m/s.
Overlay of model data (blue dotted line) on DS-300 characteristics (green solid line). Simulation software takes care of plateau above 15 m/s. Click to enlarge.
6.2 Wind turbine candidates
|| Cut-in speed[m/s]
|| Cut-out speed[m/s]
|| Survival wind speed[m/s]
|| Mathematical model
| Output [W]
|| At wind speed [m/s]
|| V30 Antarctic Microturbine
|| < 3
|| 60 (3s gust)
|| Said to be installed at Polish Polar station at Hornsund, Svalbard, in the summer of 2017
|| Prototype stage, they are designing regulator as of 20 Jan, 2018
|| Mod 350/353
|| Model yields too high wattage in wind speed range from 3.5 m/s (cut-in speed) to approx 6.5 m/s. A linear correction might be required in the simulator program.
7 BATTERY MODEL
7.1 SOC = State of Charge, lead-acid batteries
Assuming 20 deg C, this table can be a start when determining lead-acid battery state of charge (capacity of battery is something else):
7.2 Battery model: A simple linear relationship between SOC and terminal voltage
Based on observation above, we use a simple linear relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and battery terminal voltage.
V = a + (b*S)
where V = battery terminal voltage
a = 11.37445 (representing terminal voltage at 0 % SOC)
b = 0.013556
S = SOC (State of Charge)
7.3 Lead-acid battery behavior at cold temperatures
7.4 Typical lead-acid battery discharge characteristics
When a battery is stated to have a specific capacity in terms of Ampere Hours (Ah), a 0.1CA constant discharge rate is assumed (where C = Given capacity in Ah), to end-of-discharge voltage 10.5 V. Other rates of discharge will yield different capacities; higher discharge currents less, and lower will yield a higher capacity. (We have tested battery capacity with these assumptions, here is the report.)
Discharge characteristics for Yuasa NP-series lead acid battery. Source: NP_7_12_DataSheet.pdf
7.5 Losses during charge and discharge
Important article: A Study of Lead-Acid Battery Efficiency Near Top-of-Charge and the Impact on PV System Design, by John W. Stevens and Garth P. Corey, Sandia National Laboratories (also local copy)
In our model we assume 10% loss during charge process. We have to refine model to include the various factors described in this article.
7.6 Low-temperature effects on Lead-acid batteries
8 ENERGY FROM SOLAR PANELS
For the moment only wind turbines are included in modelling. Simulation results will determine our approach to solar panels. We need to collect Jan Mayen met data that are relevant to solar energy production, and of course calculated values of sun azimuth and elevation for our sensor sites.
8.1 Sun azimuth and elevation data
Sun pattern, seen from sensor site JNE/Ulla.
9 METEOROLOGICAL DATA
We need meteorological data that indicates conditions at both existing sensor sites that will be upgraded, or new sites we consider establishing.
Jan Mayen Met station. Wind sensor seen, on top of 10 m high mast ?
9.1 "Scraping" data from yr.no met web page, which has daily statistics for the last whole year
Click to visit detailed weather statistics for Jan Mayen observation site.
| This data set is of great interest. However, numbers are buried within HTML formatted web page, how can we extract them? This is one method:
- Open https://www.yr.no/place/Norway/Jan_Mayen/Jan_Mayen_observation_site/detailed_statistics.html in spread sheet program like Excel. Data inside HTML table will then be sorted into spread sheet columns; a step forward, but every cell also contains unwanted unit designations (like "°", "mm", "m/s"). Also, date format (like "January 18, 2018") is a bit unpractical for later processing, where we favor "2018-01-18" for easy sorting purposes. Delete unwanted lines above data table. Save as CSV-formatted file.
- Python script pre-processes that file and removes unit designations. Script will also re-format date information. All records are then sorted by date. Script output is just sent to terminal window, so redirect output (using ">") to file with ".csv" extension. We now have a proper data set for wind turbine modelling program.
NOTE: There is no indication at what height wind speed is measured. Standard height is either 10 or 2 meter above terrain. Wind speed at 10 meter height is generally higher (by a factor of x? - CHECK) compared to that at 2 meter height. CONTACT met.no TO CLARIFY THIS QUESTION.
9.1.1 Pre-processing software
Access to data from the official Norwegian Met station network: http://eklima.met.no
Click to visit http://eklima.met.no
10 INFORMATION - LITERATURE
Source: Vertical-axis wind turbine will drive a neutrino detector in the long Antarctic night
- Technical improvements of Windside wind turbine systems, by BERTIL BRÄNNBACKA, University of Vaasa (PDF)
- Vertical axis wind turbine, Wikipedia
- Remote Power Systems, CH2MHill Polar Services, Canada
- Wind Power Systems, at http://www.polarpower.org
- Wind Power Systems, Compiled by Tracy Dahl, http://www.polarpower.org
- Wind turbine power calculator
- MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO CALCULATE THE PERFORMANCE OF LOW POWER VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE, PDF
- https://www.calebengineering.com/theory.html --- "System Sizing -- The goal is to provide electrical power to a shed that is not connected to the grid. This video discusses the method used to estimate the size required for a wind turbine and solar panel to fulfill the system requirements."
- Rooftop Wind Turbines: Are They Worthwhile?
- WindPax: Portable Wind Turbines
- MAGNETICALLY LEVITATED VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINE, WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE report, April 30, 2009
11 WIND TURBINES OF INTEREST
When mounting wind turbune on e.g. steel pole, beware of corrosion between any Aluminum part of generator, coming into contact with steel ....
11.3 APRS World, LLC
11.4 Falkinn - Iceland
They make horizontal axle wind turbines (not advertised), that are said to be very sturdy and robust.
11.5 Hi-Vawt model DS-300
The Icelandic company IceWind seems to be a newcomer among wind turbine manufacturers. They specialize in vertical axis generators. Here is IceWind's Facebook page.
Their models are still at prototype stage and not available for purchase as of 19 January 2018. However, IceWind indicates this may change later in 2018.
One of their models, RW-100, is of particular interest to us. Tentative specifications are:
- Energy output: 100 W @ 10 m/s
- Withstanding extremely high winds and gusts over 60 m/s (Category 4 hurricane). This is exactly what's required on Jan Mayen, where maximum expected wind gust in a 30-year period is 60 m/s. Keep in mind that hurricane force starts at 32.5 m/s, so we are dealing with extreme wind conditions.
- Power production range is said to be 2-60 m/s. Energy production at wind speeds above, let say, 20 m/s, needs to be constrained - this issue must be clarified. Work on regulator electronics seems to be in progress at the moment.
- Specifications on weight and dimensions not available for the moment.
11.7 Leading Edge
11.8 Marlec / Rutland
11.9 Primus AIR 40
11.13 SVIAB, Svensk vindkraft industri AB
SVIAB, Jansonhaugen, Svalbard: Powering NORSAR's SPITS array
11.14 Wind Kinetic
The Bouvet Island field station is powered by four WindSide model WS-0,30A wind turbines, plus one Superwind 350. Image source: Getek
- AIS prototypen "Greenfield" på Svalbard. "Kystverket tester ut en ny prototype av en mer miljøvennlig og driftssikker landbasert AIS basestasjon som er spesielt tilpasset arktiske forhold. Prototypen skal settes opp på Svalbard i oktober 2016 og testes ut i operativ drift frem mot sommeren 2017. "
12 BATTERY CHARGE CONTROLLERS
- Beware of possible RF-interference from charge controller electronics (they are often built on switching power supply technology).
12.1 MPPT = Maximum Power Point Tracking
12.2.1 SES Flexcharge USA
This model used by UNAVCO at their remote GNSS stations:
Mod. NC25A-12(24, 36, 48) "Ultra High Efficiency 25 Ampere Alternative Energy Battery Charge Controller" - For GEL, AGM, and Flooded Cell Lead Acid Batteries. Manual PDF
Mfr: Flexcharge USA, mod: NC25A-12. Click to enlarge.
13 PROBLEM OF OVERSPEED / VIBRATIONS / ICING
Wind turbines must be protected for overspeed. Here is an interesting tutorial. Options:
- Blade pitch control.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS - variable / fixed pitch control
- Proven with their patented Flexible Blade System®
- ALTERNATE POWER TECHNOLOGIES Inc.
- Eoltec with their Scirocco
- Superwind GmbH with their Superwind 350/353
- Jacobs Wind Systems.
- Yaw control: The whole assembly is rotated so it is out of the wind
- Short-circuit generator windings. NOTE: This might burn out generator windings when the wind speed is very high.
13.1 Hornsund, Svalbard wind turbine, 1990: Destroyed during winter storm, at 23 m/s wind
Excerpt form : ''Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System – Preparatory Phase -- SIOS-PP
14 JMIN / NORD-JAN, 2005-6 - WIND TURBINE EXPERIENCE
There were two sets of instruments, each with separate and identical power system: One Guralp 6TD broad band station and one SARA short period station.
The broad band station recorded continuously and it was set at a sample rate of 25 samples per second in order to be able to record data for almost one year. The SARA system was set to record triggered events and it has room for about 100 events. The sample rate was 100 samples per second. The systems had independent power systems, each with a windmill, 2 solar panels and a battery.
14.1 Test of FORGEN 500 wind turbine on Jan Mayen. April 2005
April, 2005: On Jan Mayen base, Forgen 500 wind turbine was tested. Today, this model is sold as Forgen Ventus 30. Click to enlarge.
Source of this photo:
- File name: "JMI2005.doc"
- Title: "Reise til Jan Mayen, april 2005"
- Author: J.H. GEO/UoB
- Dated: April 2005
"Vindmøllen ble satt opp utenfor seismorommet, se figur 4. Under oppholdet var vinden opp i storm med en vindhastighet opp til 25 m/s. Vindmøllen er beregnet til å gi 500 mA ved 12-24 V i vindstyrke 7. Høyeste strøm målt var 800 mA. Møllen gir omtrent strøm som spesifisert. Det ser ut til at møllen er godt egnet til høye vindstyrker og det ble ikke observert vibrasjoner, selv i vindhastighet på 20 m/s."
14.2 Which turbine was used at JMIN / Nord-Jan in 2005-6 ...?
We would like to know what type of wind turbine that was used on the temporary JMIN station on Nord-Jan in 2005/6. Unfortunately, model information is not provided in JMIN report. How should we deceide this question.
14.2.1 Method #1: Ratio between height and diameter, is it different between those two models ..?
When we know the ratio between vane height, and rotor diameter, perhaps the photos will reveal this information. Let's see:
- Forgen 500 - now V30 Microturbine:
Vane height: 310 mm
Rotor Diameter: 200 mm
- Forgen 1000 - now Forgen Ventus 70:
Vane height: 465 mm
Rotor Diameter: 300 mm
Ratio between diameter and height is identical for both models. So this method won't work.
14.3 Method #2: Use diameter of Aluminum tube for comparison
JMIN, Nord-Jan, 2005/6. Click to enlarge.
From this figure we have:
- If wind turbine was Forgen 500, Alu tube had diameter approx 75 mm
- If wind turbine was Forgen 1000, Alu tube had diameter approx 113 mm
Most likely supplier of Aluminum tube, Astrup, "unfortunately" offers both Ø75 and Ø110 mm Aluminum tubes. So this method did not work, either. (I would have selected Ø110 mm tube, which would have meant that model Forgen 1000 was used ...)
After collecting more information, we can state that Forgen 500 was used in the Nord-Jan 2005-6 station.
15 PLAN B: FUEL CELL
EFOY Pro Cabinet 4060S.
For EFOY Pro 800:
- Nominal fuel (methanol) consumption: 0.9 l/kWh
- Power consumption is 12 W, that means 1000/12 = 83.3 hours to reach 1 kWh. Which means that M28 fuel cartridge (28 litre / 31.1 kWh) would last 83.3 x 31.1 = 2592 hours = 108 days
- NOTE: What is meant by "min nominal power" = 25 Watt in the specifications for model EFOY Pro 800 ?
- Fuel Cartridges
16 PLAN C: LAYING POWER CABLE FROM EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE
16.1 Existing roads, tracks
16.2 Possible cable route
16.3 Cable resistance
Let's calculate cable resistance and hence voltage drop of some cable candidates.
16.3.1 Nexans model L2-0.9 FEQE-45D
Nexans model L2-0.9 FEQE-45D is very sturdy. It can be placed on the ground, or buried directly.
- We can use 2-pair version
- Each wire in pair has Ø0.9mm diameter, 0.636 mm²
- Cable outer diameter: 13,0mm
- Weight: 370 kg/km
- DC resistance: 29 ohm/km (+/- 3 %)
- We use one pair for + voltage, and one pair for - voltage. Resistance one way: 29/2 = 14.5 ohm / km, loop resistance: 29 ohm/km
- For 6.5 km cable: one way: 94 ohm; loop: 189 ohm.
- Instrumentation power consumption: 12 watt. Assuming 24 Vdc supply at instrumentation side, that would mean 0.5 A current.
- 0.5 A over loop resistance 189 ohm means 95 Vdc voltage drop. Which means 95 Vdc + 24 Vdc = 119 Vdc must be injected at generator side.
- Conclusion: This is not practical.
16.3.2 PFSP 1kV 2x2,5/2,5
Resistance, each conductor, using http://www.epanorama.net/index.php?index=calc_cable :
- 1000 meter cable:
- Resistance of a single wire cable: 6.712 ohm / 1 km Loop Resistance of a twin wire cable: 13.424 ohm / km
- 6500 meter cable:
- 43.628 ohm single wire; 87.256 ohm loop
- Voltage loss, loop, 0.5 A current: 43.6 V
16.3.3 PFSP 1kV 2x4/4 TR
Resistance, each conductor, using http://www.epanorama.net/index.php?index=calc_cable :
- 1000 meter cable:
- Resistance of a single wire cable: 4.195 ohm / 1 km Loop Resistance of a twin wire cable: 8.39 ohm / km
- 6500 meter cable:
- 27.268 ohm single wire; 54.535 ohm loop
- Voltage loss, loop, 0.5 A current: 27.3 V
16.4 Rules regarding Jan Mayen Nature Reserve Zone
1.1 Det må ikke iverksettes virksomhet som kan påvirke landskap, naturmiljø eller kulturminner som f.eks. oppføring av bygninger, anlegg, herunder tankanlegg, og faste innretninger, herunder antenner, hensetting av brakker og lignende, fremføring av ledninger og kabler, uttak, oppfylling, flytting og lagring av masse, fjerning av drivtømmer, planering, anlegg av vei, kai, landingsplass, bruk av fiske- og fangstredskaper som kan skade havbunnen, drenering og annen form for tørrlegging, boring, sprengning eller lignende og uttak av mineraler eller olje.
Rules says cable laying is prohibited in Nature Reserve Zone, but one can request exemption from rules.
16.5 Jan Mayen Consol Navigation System (1970 - 1985)
Until 1985 a Consol Navigation System transmitter was located not far from JNE/Ulla sensor site. The Consol installation comprised three antenna masts. Small cabins was established near each antenna.
16.6 Unused cabin, remnants of Consol system
16.6.1 Consol B
Image source: http://www.jan-mayen.no/nyhet/2006/11_Nov/nov06.html
"Consol B. Ikke så mye snø, men det gikk fint." http://www.atlecm.com/Bilder/Jan%20Mayen/05-06/JM2006.01.22%20skuter/jan_mayen_220106.htm
''"Vil det holde...?" http://www.jan-mayen.no/nyhet/2006/08_Aug/August06.html
"Klar for løfting" http://www.jan-mayen.no/nyhet/2006/08_Aug/August06.html
16.6.2 Consol A
"Ved Consol A gikk vi gjennom isen, men det var så grunt at det var mest gøy :)" http://www.atlecm.com/Bilder/Jan%20Mayen/05-06/JM2006.02.24%20Ekerol/jan_mayen_240206.htm
17.1 Learn something ...
Wind Energy for the Rest of Us: A Comprehensive Guide to Wind Power and How to Use It, by Paul Gipe
17.3 VAWT problems
17.4 Installing Gnuplot on WIN10
- Download GNUPLOT for Windows: http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnuplot/files/gnuplot/
- Edit PATH in Environment Variables:
- Start > Control Panel > System > About > System info (a new window opens)
- View basic information about your computer > Advanced system settings > Environment Variables > Path > Edit
- Add path to Gnuplot binary (e.g.: ;C:\Program Files\gnuplot\bin). SEMICOLON SEPARATES THE VARIOUS FOLDERS. After that, SAVE and EXIT.
- Check PATH variable by typing (in terminal window):
- If PATH will not include gnuplot folder (for some unknown reason), just type complete path to gnuplot executable, by typing
O:\>"c:\Program Files\gnuplot\bin\gnuplot.exe" (assuming it was located in that folder).
17.5 Jan Mayen Nature Reserve Zone, 2010